Thursday, May 7, 2020

Toyota Case Study (Case 4). Toyota Origins, Evolution,...

The typical mass-production system established by Henry T. Ford in the early 1900’s is based on the idea that there would be an assembly line that was to produce a limited product line in massive quantities to gain economies of scale. To do this the company needs to stretch its fixed costs that are involved in setting up a specialized machine and the way to do this produce a massive amount of that part of the equipment, store it in warehouses, and change the equipment to produce the next needed part. In doing this, the employees do the same job continuously and this increases in the likelihood possible errors because without the incentive to be efficient, employees will not be careful. Also, you have to pay managers and foremen to oversee†¦show more content†¦A database compiles all of the customer preferences from style, color, process, luxury features, etc. The information is compiled, sorted, analyzed, and implemented into action on an assembly floor. The implicati ons are that Toyota is going to the customer, changing the way market is done and how effective it is, and the need for precise research and development to take to customer and chart their reactions. The basis of Toyota’s competitive advantage is efficient production at low costs, but not conceding by way of quality. Toyota has mastered the way of production on the assembly line without producing large inventory amounts. However, relationships not only with suppliers, but with the customers help establish loyalty and the need to want to give feedback. Toyota’s success most certainly can be imitated; however, U.S. companies typically do not do business in this manner. Toyota simply imitated what leaders in the industry were doing when they entered the market, studied their competition, and collaborated to recognize implement new changes. It is all about trial and error, focus, and team-work; all qualities the Japanese businessmen are known for. Toyota will be able to establish their competitive advantage in the future simply because as their competitors continue to innovate and perform, Toyota is continuing to do well. Toyota achieved its goal of owning at least 15% of the market share and is now the leading car manufacture internationally. Toyota isShow MoreRelatedA Case Study of International Brand Management: Comparison of Lexus Brand Management in Brazil, United States and Japan.39374 Words   |  158 PagesA CASE STUDY OF INTERNATIONAL BRAND MANAGEMENT: COMPARISON OF LEXUS BRAND MANAGEMENT IN BRAZIL, UNITED STATES AND JAPAN. Wakayama University Graduate School of Economics Supervisor: Sotaro Sasaki Author: Ana Cecilia Fernà ¡ndez Pedrozo Student Number: 17410030 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ · 1 I. ANALYSIS OF THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ·Ã‚ · 4 I.1. BRAND MANAGEMENTRead MoreTechnological Change, Information Processing And Supply Chain Integration9364 Words   |  38 Pageseconomies should strongly determine the speed of competitive reaction. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Life of Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia Book Review Free Essays

The Life of Catherine the Great: Empress of Russia By Carolly Erickson The Life of Catherine the Great is a 400-page book written by Carolly Erickson that details the interesting life of Catherine. The book was published in 1994 and printed by St. Martin’s Press in New York. We will write a custom essay sample on The Life of Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia: Book Review or any similar topic only for you Order Now Readers are able to purchase/check-out this book in a hardback copy with the ISBN of 0312135033 and also a paperback copy with an ISBN of 978-0312135034. The book features a full-length photo of Catherine in her royal attire on the front cover of the book. Erickson begins the novel about Catherine, born Sophie, when she was a young four-year old girl. From the beginning of the book, she gives an account of Catherine the Great’s life chronologically. Erickson used primary sources to collect information on Catherine and even used several autobiographies that were written in French by Catherine herself from different periods in her life. From these memoirs, Erickson was able to interpret that Catherine was a full-bodied, educated, lovable, woman who was born to a German family and occupied prestigious titles early on into later stages of her life. Carolly Erickson performed rigorous research and provided some of the most intimate details about Catherine from Russia. Erickson spent much time interviewing different informants (diplomats, guards, foreign visitors) and quoting material from journalists and others’ journals. With this particular book, a reader will definitely get a well-written biography of this infamous historical figure and learn a great deal about the times of Russia as well as unknown information about Catherine. This book was intended for readers that wanted to get a better grasp of Catherine the Great, but also can be an appealing piece of work that is out of the ordinary for readers not quite familiar with Catherine. Erickson made sure to capture her audience’s attention with the intriguing facts of Catherine’s being and managed to bring Catherine’s character to life. Catherine the Great of Russia was rumored to have been a crazy nymphomaniac believed to have had a hand in her husband’s murder. Erickson made an effort to dissolve her tarnished image and uncover who Catherine really was. She was very empathetic regarding Catherine’s reputation. Erickson discussed how Catherine dressed and her attitude. She explained how she married a duke at the tender age of 14 and how their marriage was troublesome. She also mentions how charming and intelligent Catherine was and provides insight on how she made helpful changes to Russia; but very little was written about how she ruled as Empress. Erickson demonstrated Catherine’s strength and willpower to rule without the presence of a man. Readers are definitely provided a vivid description of what is occurring so much that they will more than likely feel they were present during these times. Erickson reveals Catherine’s insecurities, downfalls, yearn for love and inevitable sorrows but also commends Catherine’s accomplishments that gained her fame and allowed her to become one of Russia’s renowned leaders. Overall, I enjoyed reading the book and discovered pieces of information that usually would not be mentioned in a traditional history class. I felt that the book was interesting in the very beginning and the middle until I reached the end. I was bored beyond tears and could not believe this was the same book that I started out reading. Aside from my anticipation that the ending would be just as exciting as the beginning, I learned that the book wasn’t as interesting because Catherine no longer wrote memoirs or autobiographies once she became an empress; which was closer toward the end of the book. The author, Erickson, obviously began reaching once she ran out of Catherine’s material. Because the focus of this book was personal, I feel that it would be useless if it was used as an educational tool. I feel that it should be recommended primarily for personal enjoyment. Therefore, I wouldn’t suggest this book to a Russian scholar, to someone who was interested in the politics of Russia, or to someone that wanted heavy details on other aspects of Catherine’s rule. Erickson is a great writer and an expert on writing biographies. I felt that she constructed The Life of Catherine the Great well, but I feel that she should be more conscious of making sure to keep her audience’s attention all the way to the end. It was a letdown and I struggled to finish the book because my interest diminished greatly towards the end. I also feel that, in the future, she should focus on all aspects of a person’s life rather than just the personal details in order to receive a well-rounded assessment. Instinctively, I admired Carolly Erickson for her dedication in finding first hand information on Catherine the Great (which wasn’t much) and putting together a well-written account of her life. How to cite The Life of Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia: Book Review, Essays

Monday, April 27, 2020

Last of the Mohicans Two Heroes free essay sample

When the British soldiers are walking through the forest, on their way to the fort, and are ambushed by the Huron war party, he gallantly saves both Coral, and her sister Alice, and a few of the British soldiers, Including Major Duncan Hayward, this alone shows Nathaniel courage and strength. He then displays nobility, and leadership, when he leads this group of people onward to the British fort, where they are battling the French. Then, later, Coral and Alice are captured by the Huron, lead by Magma, and taken back to their settlement. This presents the opportunity for Nathaniel to yet again, display his heroism, by not only leading his small party of companions to the Huron settlement by reading the environment, but also, when he gets there, rescues Coral, from almost certain death. Nathaniel may have shown many qualities of a hero, but he is not the only hero in the tale. We will write a custom essay sample on Last of the Mohicans Two Heroes or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Along with Nathaniel heroism, goes Cool. Edmund Neurons heroism.Munroe, at first, appears to be an tattooists going against the protagonist, Nathaniel, and his actions, until later. Cool. Munroe, and his soldiers, were clearly losing the battle, and Cool. Munroe, swallowed his pride, and surrendered to the French force, saving the lives of countless men. This showed Neurons compassion, courage, and nobility hen he saved the lives of all the soldiers. Along with this, he negotiated the terms of the surrender, and ensured his wounded soldiers would be cared for by the French medics.Munroe is yet another example of extraordinary heroism in The Last of the Mexicans. Both Nathaniel, and Cool. Edmund Munroe the qualities of a hero, strength, nobility, and courage. Nathaniel emulated many traits off hero in The Last of the Mexicans. Also, Cool. Munroe displayed these important traits needed to be a successful hero. Hero can be defined in numerous ways, many of which are displayed In the novel, The Last of the Mexicans. Last of the Mexicans Two Heroes By ditz nobility and strength.In the book The Last of the Mexicans by James Feminine British soldiers are walking through the forest, on their way to the fort, and are and a few of the British soldiers, including Major Duncan Hayward, this alone shows he leads this group of people onward to the British fort, where they are battling the Coral, from almost certain death. Nathaniel may have shown many qualities off Hero can be defined in numerous ways, many of which are displayed in the novel,

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Agrarian Discontent In The Late 1800s Essays - Free Essays

Agrarian Discontent In The Late 1800s Essays - Free Essays Agrarian Discontent in the Late 1800's "Why the Farmers Were Wrong" The period between 1880 and 1900 was a boom time for American politics. The country was for once free of the threat of war, and many of its citizens were living comfortably. However, as these two decades went by, the American farmer found it harder and harder to live comfortably. Crops such as cotton and wheat, once the bulwark of agriculture, were selling at prices so low that it was nearly impossible for farmers to make a profit off them. Furthermore, improvement in transportation allowed foreign competition to materialize, making it harder for American farmers to dispose of surplus crop. Finally, years of drought in the midwest and the downward spiral of business in the 1890's devastated many of the nation's farmers. As a result of the agricultural depression, many farm groups, most notably the Populist Party, arose to fight what farmers saw as the reasons for the decline in agriculture. During the last twenty years of the nineteenth century, many farmers in the United States saw monopolies and trusts, railroads, and money shortages and the demonetization of silver as threats to their way of life, though in many cases their complaints were not valid. The growth of the railroad was one of the most significant elements in American economic growth. However, in many ways, the railroads hurt small shippers and farmers. Extreme competition between rail companies necessitated some way to win business. To do this, many railroads offered rebates and drawbacks to larger shippers who used their rails. However, this practice hurt smaller shippers, including farmers, for often times railroad companies would charge more to ship products short distances than they would for long trips. The rail companies justified this practice by asserting that if they did not rebate, they would not make enough profit to stay in business. In his testimony to the Senate Cullom Committee, George W. Parker stated, "...the operating expense of this road...requires a certain volume of business to meet these fixed expenses....in some seasons of the year, the local business of the road...is not sufficient to make the earnings...when we make up a train of ten of fiftee n cars of local freight...we can attach fifteen or twenty cars...of strictly through business. We can take the latter at a very low rate than go without it." Later, when asked the consequences of charging local traffic the same rate as through freight, Mr. Parker responded, "Bankruptcy, inevitably and speedy...". While the railroads felt that they must use this practice to make a profit, the farmers were justified in complaining, for they were seriously injured by it. A perfect example of this fact can be found in The Octopus by Frank Norris. A farmer named Dyke discovers that the railroad has increased their freight charges from two to five cents a pound. This new rate, "...ate up every cent of his gains. He stood there ruined." (Doc. H). The railroads regularly used rebates and drawbacks to help win the business of large shippers, and made up this loss in profit by increasing the cost to smaller shippers such as farmers. As a result, many farmers, already hurt by the downslide in agriculture, were ruined. Thus, the farmers of the late nineteenth century had a valid complaint against railroad shippers, for these farmers were hurt by the unfair practices of the railroads. Near the end of the nineteenth century, business began to centralize, leading to the rise of monopolies and trusts. Falling prices, along with the need for better efficiency in industry, led to the rise of such companies as Carnegie Steel and Standard Oil, which controlled a majority of the nation's supply of raw steel and oil respectively. The rise of these monopolies and trusts concerned many farmers, for they felt that the disappearance of competition would lead to erratic and unreasonable price rises that would hurt consumers. James B. Weaver, the Populist party's presidential candidate in the 1892 election, summed up the feelings of many Americans of the period in his work, A Call to Action: An Interpretation of the Great Uprising. He wrote, "It is clear that trusts are...in conflict with the Common law. They are monopolies organized to

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Eustreptospondylus - Facts and Figures

Eustreptospondylus - Facts and Figures Name: Eustreptospondylus (Greek for true well-curved vertebrae); pronounced YOU-strep-toe-SPON-dih-luss Habitat: Shores of Western Europe Historical Period: Middle Jurassic (165 million years ago) Size and Weight: About 30 feet long and two tons Diet: Meat Distinguishing Characteristics: Large size; sharp teeth; bipedal posture; curved vertebrae in spine About Eustreptospondylus Eustreptospondylus (Greek for true well-curved vertebrae) had the misfortune of being discovered in the mid-19th century, before scientists had developed a suitable system for the classification of dinosaurs. This large theropod was originally believed to be a species of Megalosaurus (the first dinosaur ever to be officially named); it took a full century for paleontologists to recognize that its unusually curved vertebrae merited assignment to its own genus. Because the skeleton of the only known fossil specimen of Eustreptospondylus was recovered from marine sediments, experts believe that this dinosaur hunted prey along the shores of the small islands that (in the middle Jurassic period) dotted the coast of southern England. Despite its difficult-to-pronounce name, Eustreptospondylus is one of the most important dinosaurs ever to be discovered in western Europe, and deserves to be better known by the general public. The type specimen (of a not-quite-fully-grown adult) was discovered in 1870 near Oxford, England, and until later discoveries in North America (notably of Allosaurus and Tyrannosaurus Rex) counted as the worlds most complete skeleton of a meat-eating dinosaur. At 30 feet long and up to two tons, Eustreptospondylus remains one of the largest identified theropod dinosaurs of Mesozoic Europe; for example, another famous European theropod, Neovenator, was less than half its size! Perhaps because of its English provenance, Eustreptospondylus was prominently featured a few years ago in a notorious episode of Walking With Dinosaurs, produced by the BBC. This dinosaur was depicted as capable of swimming, which may not be so far-fetched, given that it lived on a small island and may occasionally have had to venture far afield to forage for prey; more controversially, in the course of the show one individual is swallowed whole by the giant marine reptile Liopleurodon, and later (as nature comes full circle) two adult Eustreptospondylus are shown feasting on a beached Liopleurodon carcass. (We do, by the way, have good evidence for swimming dinosaurs; recently, it was proposed that the giant theropod Spinosaurus spent most of its time in the water.)

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Intention in Criminology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Intention in Criminology - Essay Example The criminal intention of an accused is to be proved with evidence. It is the interpretation of the jury duly applying the tests. The doctrine of law of murder is of two fold intention and causation. The doctrine of intention in the law of murder is vital doctrine. The doctrine of intention assigns the liability of murder. Intention denotes what is in the mind of the accused at the time of committing the crime and also the effect of the action. The doctrine of intention adjudges and infers the mind of the accused. The intention can be analyzed as direct intention and indirect intention. Direct intention: Direct intention means the aim, object or desire to do an act whose effects or results are prohibited under law as an offence. In this state of mind the person is surely designed and prepared to do some criminal act. An intention to commit murder is an example of direct intention. Indirect intention: Indirect intention is also known as oblique intention. In this state of mind the person does not desire the consequences or the results of his action but he knows that the results of his action, and he does not care for the result, it is due to his recklessness on the results. The direct intention of such person is some thing other but in process the result produces an offensive act. The best example of the oblique intention is that of the extremist activities. The extremist when they want to cause damage to the public property to show their protest against the action of the government they set fire to the public property such as telephone exchanges, railway stations, government buses etc. They know that there will be human loss still they do not care about. The crime of murder is the out come of oblique intention of the extremist and the crime of damage to the public property is the out come of direct intention. The existence of indirect or oblique intention of the person is tested in two ways. The one way is to see whether the consequence of the act is certain, and other one is the person who doing such act certainly knows the consequences of his action. Here the certainty of the consequence and the knowledge of the person about that consequence are important ingredients. When these two tests are fulfilled then the oblique intention exists in the action and the person will be held liable under the crime of oblique intent. These tests were dealt with in decided case of "R v Nedrick (1986) 8 Cr App R(S) 179; [1986] 3 All ER 1" . Intentional crimes: There are some crimes that can be done only intentionally that is to say these crimes can not be done unless there is clear intention to do such crime. Crime of attempts to murder, crime of ulterior intent, crimes of basic intent, crime of specific intent are the intentional crimes. Attempt to murder: "R v Mohan [1976] QB 1; [1975] 2 All ER 193" in this case the defendant committed a crime of attempt to murder by driving at a policeman. The policeman could escape by jumping at last moment and could save his life. The trial judge held it as an act of recklessness. But the appellate court felt it as an attempt to murder and insisted upon the proof of specific intent. Specific intention: Intoxication is the example for crime of Specific intention. Under this the defendant is not allowed to the plea of his drunken and intoxication to protect from the sentence of crime. If crime is established it is